The Fermilab muon g-2 experiment recently released a new measurement of the magnetic moment anomaly of the muon. Muons are like electrons, but heavier and short-lived. Their magnetic properties can be predicted with impressive precision. This prediction requires the careful consideration of quantum corrections that arise due the interactions of the muon with all known particles of nature such as electrons, photons, W-bosons, etc. Comparison of the experimental results with theoretical predictions then serves as a powerful test of the completeness of the Standard Model of nature. This comparison has revealed some puzzles, whose resolution might indicate the need for new physics. The concepts behind the Fermilab experiment and the many challenges it faces will be presented, along with the comparison with theory and future prospects.